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Tuesday, December 7, 2021

Bạn có thể “lập trình” não bộ của mình để đưa ra những giải pháp thiên tài không?

Bạn có thấy mình được phát triển hơn nhờ những sáng kiến của đồng đội không? Nghiên cứu cho thấy rằng, qua luyện tập, tất cả chúng ta đều có thể trở thành những tia sáng rực rỡ.

Khi chúng ta nghĩ về những người nổi tiếng với sự sáng tạo vượt bậc, chúng ta dễ dàng nghĩ rằng một cách nào đó họ được sinh ra rất khác biệt, với bộ não được kết nối mới lạ, có thể nhìn thấy thế giới với một nhãn quan phi thường.

Chúng ta quên rằng những thiên tài xuất chúng thường trải qua nhiều năm với những đề án không mấy thành công – việc luyện tập giúp họ mãi dũa ý tưởng của mình cho đến khi tạo ra được cái gì đó thực sự độc đáo. Thực ra, hầu hết những tác giả vĩ đại, những nghệ sĩ tài ba hay những nhà phát minh lỗi lạc đều đã trải qua một giai đoạn “học việc”, họ phải học biết làm thế nào để phát triển và tinh lọc những ý tưởng của mình trước khi có bất kỳ sự đột phá nào.

Giáo sư Gerard Puccio, trưởng Ban Thuật Lãnh Đạo Sáng tạo và Thay Đổi của đại học SUNY Buffalo, Mỹ đã khẳng định “Rất nhiều người không biết rằng sự sáng tạo đơn giản chỉ là một kỹ năng được rèn luyện”. Chúng ta nên bỏ ngoài tai quan niệm về sự sáng tạo như một năng khiếu thiên bẩm hơn là được rèn luyện, bất cứ khi nào chúng ta đảm nhận một nhiệm vụ nào đó.

Tuy nhiên, qua những nghiên cứu vững chắc, những nhà tâm lý học như Puccio đã xác định cách tốt nhất để kích hoạt quy trình rèn luyện này. Những cơ sở nghiên cứu của họ chỉ ra rằng, với việc rèn luyện, tất cả chúng ta đều có thể học để suy nghĩ nhiều hơn về cuộc sống thường nhật để tạo ra những đổi mới vĩ đại hơn, và hoàn thành bất cứ điều gì chúng ta đã lựa chọn.

Kỹ năng tư duy

Trong những chương trình rèn luyện sự sáng tạo, Mô hình Kỹ Năng Tư Duy của Puccio là một trong những nỗ lực thử nghiệm tốt nhất để đào tạo khả năng sáng tạo nơi công sở.

Chương trình này nhấn mạnh đến nhu cầu cân bằng hai loại tư duy: tư duy hội tụ và tư duy phân nhánh. Tư duy phân nhánh là loại tư duy với những ý tưởng tự do mà chúng ta có thể nghĩ ngay đến những nhà phát minh “ngớ ngẩn” với nhiều sáng kiến mới lạ, đôi khi là hàng loạt giải pháp cho những nan đề. Ngược lại, tư duy hội tụ liên quan đến sự lựa chọn và phát triển những ý tưởng tốt nhất, hiệu quả nhất, đảm bảo chúng có khả năng sử dụng được.

Cả hai loại tư duy này đều rất cần thiết. Không có tư duy phân nhánh thì những ý tưởng của bạn thật nhàm chán và tầm thường, không có tư duy hội tụ, thì những ý tưởng kia cũng thật mơ hồ.

Hầu hết những nhà văn vĩ đại, nghệ sĩ hay những nhà phát minh đều phải trải qua những giai đoạn “học việc” để học biết làm thế nào để phát triển và tinh lọc những ý tưởng của họ.

Sau khi học biết những khái niệm, chúng ta được huấn luyện theo Mô hình kỹ năng tư duy để áp dụng tư duy phân nhánh và hội tụ qua bảy bước khác nhau, chúng là những tư duy quan trọng cho hầu hết những giải pháp sáng tạo: xem xét hoàn cảnh, định hướng tầm nhìn, xác định thử thách, khám phá ý tưởng, đưa ra những giải pháp, khảo sát nghiên cứu thực tiễn, và lên kế hoạch thực hiện.

Trong một cuộc thí nghiệm gần đây, Puccio đã chọn 559 sinh viên đại học. Những người tham gia này bao gồm những người chưa được qua một khóa đào tạo phát triển sáng tạo nào, những người đã dự khóa huấn luyện Mô Hình Kỹ Năng Tư Duy trong vòng 3 ngày, và những người đã trải qua những khóa huấn luyện mở rộng, chẳng hạn đã hoàn thành bằng thạc sĩ về năng lực sáng tạo của SUNY với trị liệu nhận thức để cải thiện tư duy ban đầu cũng như những dự án đầy tham vọng mang lý thuyết vào thực tiễn.

Trong thí nghiệm này, người tham gia được tách thành những nhóm nhỏ, theo mức độ về sự huấn luyện sáng tạo họ đã trải qua, họ được yêu cầu phải nghĩ ra những giải pháp khuyến khích mọi người sử dụng hệ thống xe buýt ở Gretaer Buffalo, New York. Những giải pháp này được đánh giá qua những phán đoán độc lập về chất lượng, chẳng hạn, tính linh hoạt, uyển chuyển – liệu có nhóm nào xem xét về những ý tưởng trong phạm vi rộng hơn với giải pháp truyền thống trước đây hay không.

Đúng như bạn mong đợi, nhóm người đã trải qua khóa huấn luyện sáng tạo làm tốt hơn, nảy sinh nhiều ý tưởng độc đáo gấp bốn lần so với nhóm người chưa tham gia khóa huấn luyện hướng nghiệp nào. Hơn nữa, kết quả còn cho thấy những điểm khác biệt giữa những chương trình huấn luyện, nhóm tham dự viên đã qua khóa 3 ngày (Mô Hình Kỹ Năng Tư Duy) trung bình phát sinh 67 ý tưởng mới, trong khi nhóm đã qua khóa huấn luyện kéo dài nghĩ ra 84 ý tưởng.

Điều này dường như là một sự cải thiện khiêm tốn nhất được sinh ra bởi những khác biệt về thời gian luyện tập giữa một khóa ngắn hạn và tấm bằng thạc sĩ. Tuy nhiên, điều quan trọng là những ai đã theo khóa đào tạo nâng cao thì đạt được nhiều kỹ năng hơn về sự chọn lựa, phát triển và tinh lọc những đề án của mình. Chẳng hạn, Puccio chỉ ra rằng, nhóm này thường kết hợp nhiều ý tưởng, trong khi khả năng đó hầu như không xảy ra ở những nhóm khác. Điều này có nghĩa là những giải pháp sau cùng của họ tốt hơn nhiều so với cách giải quyết của các nhóm khác.

Nghiên cứu chỉ ra rằng: Trải qua thời gian luyện tập và mài dũa những ý tưởng ban đầu sẽ đem lại nhiều lợi ích.

Hiển nhiên, một sự khởi đầu sáng tạo mau mắn có thể thúc đẩy tư duy của chúng ta ngay lập tức nhưng nó không thể có được nếu thiếu sự luyện tập thường xuyên và lâu dài. “Sáng tạo là một công việc hết sức khó khăn”, Puccio nói. “Cần đầu tư thời gian để phát triển những kỹ năng này, cũng giống như tư duy phản biện phải tốn nhiều thời gian để xác định đâu là những ý tưởng hứa hẹn nhất”.

Gần đây, Martin Meinel đã  thí nghiệm một chương trình Luyện tập sự sáng tạo ở Đại học Friesrich – Alexander, Erlangen- Nürnberg, Đức, ông đã đưa ra một kết luận tương tự “Bạn có thể nghĩ về sự sáng tạo như một cơ bắp, nó cần được luyện tâp liên tục để phát triển và duy trì sự mạnh mẽ”

Meinel nói: Với một sự luyện tập nhỏ, bạn có thể ngạc nhiên vì sự tiến bộ của mình – ngay cả khi bạn chưa bao giờ thể hiện bất kỳ một nỗ lực sáng tạo nào trước đây, “Thật vậy, những người mà ban đầu rất ít sáng tạo, họ đã gặt hái được những thành quả lớn lao nhất”

Sẵn sàng học hỏi

Tất cả đều đúng, khi bạn bắt đầu một tư duy đúng. Ella Miron-Spekton, phó giáo sư về hành vi tổ chức ở trường kinh tế INSEAD, Fontainebleau, Pháp, chỉ ra rằng, niềm tin và thái độ làm việc của chúng ta sẽ tác động không nhỏ đến sự phát triển sáng tạo.

Bà ấy cho rằng, một số người thuộc tư duy “hiệu suất theo định hướng”: họ thường so sánh mình với người khác. Nhìn chung, họ tập trung vào năng lực làm việc của mình, luôn gắn bó với nhiệm vụ được giao và sẽ luôn thành công trong công việc. Thất bại sẽ làm cho họ nhụt chí, mất hết can đảm. “Họ có xu hướng xem trọng phản hồi của người khác dành cho mình. Họ nghĩ rằng nếu bạn không thể làm tốt công việc được giao, vì lý do bạn thiếu khả năng, như thế, bạn không thể phát triển được”, giáo sư Miron-Spektor nhận xét.

Một số người khác thuộc tuýp tư duy “định hướng học hỏi”: họ có xu hướng tận dụng mọi cơ hội để phát triển kỹ năng và mở rộng nhận thức. Họ dễ dàng đứng lên sau khi đối mặt với những thất bại, vì họ có khả năng phân tích những trải nghiệm và xem chúng như những bài học, những cơ hội để thăng tiến.

Liệu những tư duy này có ảnh hướng đến sự sáng tạo của chúng ta theo dòng thời gian hay không, phó giáo sư Miron-Spektor đã làm một thí nghiệm với những nhân viên của một nhà máy sản xuất điện quang lớn ở Israel. Ban quản lý đã giới thiệu một chương trình đổi mới, yêu cầu các nhân viên đưa ra những sáng kiến để cải thiện quy trình hoặc sản phẩm. Mỗi ý tưởng sẽ được đánh giá bởi một hội đồng chuyên môn về tiềm năng của các đề án và các chuyên gia này sẽ đưa ra phản hồi cho những người phát minh đầu tiên.

Chẳng bao lâu nữa, bạn có thể thấy não bộ của bạn được “lập trình” để suy nghĩ một cách tự động những giải pháp tài tình.

Nhìn vào bảy năm dữ liêụ thu được từ bảng kế hoạch, Miron-Spektor có thể chia mỗi “quĩ đạo sáng tạo” của nhân viên và so sánh chúng với kết quả của bảng đo lường tuýp người định hướng học hỏi hoặc nhóm hiệu suất định hướng. Tóm lại, bà ấy nhận ra rằng những nhân viên định hướng học hỏi cải thiện đáng kể về cả về số lượng lẫn chất lượng những ý tưởng mà họ đóng góp cho bảng kế hoạch so với nhóm người hiệu suất định hướng, họ có xu hướng từ bỏ, ngừng cố gắng khi đối diện với một sự chán nản, thất vọng.

“Không chỉ những người có định hướng học hỏi sáng tạo hơn mức trung bình, nhưng chúng ta thấy rằng họ học nhanh hơn, vì thế, họ có khả năng cải thiện sự sáng tạo theo thời gian”, bà Miron-Spektor nhận xét.

Cuộc sống sáng tạo

Một kết luận rõ ràng nhất từ những nghiên cứu này là doanh nghiệp có thể đầu tư đào tạo tư duy nhóm nhiều hơn để huấn luyện đội ngũ nhân viên của họ – hơn là giả thuyết sự sáng tạo tự động đạt được mà không cần luyện tập. Tuy nhiên, điều quan trọng là, họ cũng cần tạo môi trường làm việc thuận lợi để phát triển định hướng học hỏi cho nhân viên. “bạn phải khuyến khích mọi người coi sự thất bại như một phần của quá trình thăng tiến,” để đóng khung những lời chỉ trích như những cơ hội phát triển tương lai, giáo sư Miron- Spektor nhận định.

Puccio cho rằng thái độ của những nhà lãnh đạo có thể tạo nên một khác biệt to lớn. “Nếu hành vi của người lãnh đạo không dẫn đến những kỹ năng tư duy sáng tạo mới mẻ, ảnh hưởng của nó sẽ bị hạn chế”, ông nói.

Thậm chí, chỉ những hướng dẫn nho nhỏ cho nhân viên cũng có thể tạo nên một năng lực khởi đầu mới. Trong thí nghiệm của Puccio, một vài người tham dự không qua khóa đào tạo nào được yêu cầu chia việc giải quyết vấn đề của họ ra hai giai đoạn – giai đoạn phát sinh ý tưởng (tư duy phân nhánh) và lựa chọn ý tưởng (tư duy hội tụ). Ông nhận định rằng điều này đem đến cho họ sự sáng tạo nhiều hơn so với những nhân viên phải tự mình xoay sở, lo liệu lấy.

Nếu bạn mong muốn đẩy mạnh tư duy sáng tạo cho bản thân, Meinel đề nghị bạn nên suy nghĩ lại những vấn đề nhỏ mà bạn phải đối mặt hằng ngày. Tất cả chúng ta đều có những thói quen để xử lí những vấn đề thường ngày, nhưng bạn có thể xem xét liệu mình có thể thay đổi cách giải quyết chúng không như trước đây nữa hay không. Chẳng bao lâu nữa, bạn có thể nhận thấy bộ não của mình sẽ tự động được “lập trình” để đưa ra những giải pháp hữu hiệu nhất, ông nói.  

Với thời gian, việc nảy sinh và tinh lọc ý tưởng sẽ trở nên một quy luật tự nhiên thứ hai – một “thói quen sáng tạo” cho phép bạn xử trí những nan đề lớn hơn với những ý tưởng độc đáo, mới lạ.

Bài viêt của David Robson trên BBC Worklife

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